The pros and cons: should students have homework?


It used to lớn be that students were the only ones complaining about the practice of assigning homework. For years, teachers & parents thought that homework was a necessary tool when educating children. But studies about the effectiveness of homework have been conflicting và inconclusive, leading some adults khổng lồ argue that homework should become a thing of the past.

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What Research Says about Homework

According khổng lồ Duke professor Harris Cooper, it"s important that students have homework. His meta-analysis of homework studies showed a correlation between completing homework và academic success, at least in older grades. He recommends following a "10 minute rule": students should receive 10 minutes of homework per day in first grade, và 10 additional minutes each subsequent year, so that by twelfth grade they are completing 120 minutes of homework daily.


But his analysis didn"t prove that students did better because they did homework; it simply showed a correlation. This could simply mean that kids who vị homework are more committed lớn doing well in school. Cooper also found that some research showed that homework caused physical & emotional stress, and created negative attitudes about learning. He suggested that more research needed lớn be done on homework"s effect on kids.

Further reading: Get Homework Done và Turned In

Some researchers say that the question isn"t whether kids should have homework. It"s more about what kind of homework students have & how much. To lớn be effective, homework has lớn meet students" needs. For example, some middle school teachers have found success with online math homework that"s adapted khổng lồ each student"s màn chơi of understanding. But when middle school students were assigned more than an hour & a half of homework, their math and science kiểm tra scores went down.

Researchers at Indiana University discovered that math và science homework may improve standardized chạy thử grades, but they found no difference in course grades between students who did homework và those who didn"t. These researchers theorize that homework doesn"t result in more content mastery, but in greater familiarity with the kinds of questions that appear on standardized tests. According to Professor Adam Maltese, one of the study"s authors, "Our results hint that maybe homework is not being used as well as it could be."

So while many teachers & parents support daily homework, it"s hard to lớn find strong evidence that the long-held practice produces positive results.

Problems with Homework

In an article in Education Week Teacher, teacher Samantha Hulsman said she"s frequently heard parents complain that a 30-minute homework assignment turns into a three-hour battle with their kids. Now, she"s facing the same problem with her own kids, which has her rethinking her former beliefs about homework. "I think parents expect their children to have homework nightly, and teachers assign daily homework because it"s what we"ve always done," she explained. Today, Hulsman said, it"s more important to lớn know how lớn collaborate & solve problems than it is lớn know specific facts.

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Child psychologist Kenneth Barish wrote in Psychology Today that battles over homework rarely result in a child"s improvement in school. Children who don"t do their homework are not lazy, he said, but they may be frustrated, discouraged, or anxious. And for kids with learning disabilities, homework is lượt thích "running with a sprained ankle. It"s doable, but painful."

Barish suggests that parents and kids have a "homework plan" that limits the time spent on homework. The plan should include turning off all devices—not just the student"s, but those belonging to lớn all family members.

One of the best-known critics of homework, Alfie Kohn, says that some people wrongly believe "kids are like vending machines—put in an assignment, get out learning." Kohn points khổng lồ the lack of evidence that homework is an effective learning tool; in fact, he calls it "the greatest single extinguisher of children"s curiosity that we have yet invented."

Homework Bans

Last year, the public schools in Marion County, Florida, decided on a no-homework policy for all of their elementary students. Instead, kids read nightly for trăng tròn minutes. Superintendent Heidi Maier said the decision was based on Cooper"s research showing that elementary students gain little from homework, but a lot from reading.

Orchard Elementary School in South Burlington, Vermont, followed the same path, substituting reading for homework. The homework policy has four parts: read nightly, go outside and play, have dinner with your family, & get a good night"s sleep. Principal Mark Trifilio says that his staff và parents tư vấn the idea.

But while many elementary schools are considering no-homework policies, middle schools and high schools have been reluctant to abandon homework. Schools say parents support homework & teachers know it can be helpful when it is specific & follows certain guidelines. For example, practicing solving word problems can be helpful, but there"s no reason to lớn assign 50 problems when 10 will do. Recognizing that not all kids have the time, space, và home tư vấn to vì homework is important, so it shouldn"t be counted as part of a student"s grade.

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Further reading: Balancing Extracurriculars with Homework in High School

So Should Students Have Homework?

Should you ban homework in your classroom? If you teach lower grades, it"s possible. If you teach middle or high school, probably not. But all teachers should think carefully about their homework policies. By limiting the amount of homework & improving the unique of assignments, you can improve learning outcomes for your students.